Graphene Renewable Energy: Harnessing Graphene’s Potential for Sustainable Energy Solutions

Graphene Renewable Energy

You might be surprised to know that within the human body, carbon is the second most abundant mass and the fourth most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen based on mass.

This is how carbon makes the chemical basis for all life on earth, making graphene potentially an eco-friendly and sustainable solution for an almost limitless number of applications.

After discovering (or, more accurately, the mechanical obtainment) of graphene, applications within different scientific disciplines have exploded.

Let’s have a read on how new types of graphene renewable energy open up for exciting opportunities for us-

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Graphene – Consider the aspect of nanotechnology, so to think big, you need first consider the very small.

The truth about graphene, since it was first discovered in 2004, has been hailed as one of the significant materials breakthrough since the plastics revolution more than a century ago.

The early predictions were that graphene would almost immediately enable the kinds of products and technologies we’re used to seeing in sci-fi movies.

Cut to more than a decade and a half later, and that still hasn’t happened. Not even close.

With opinions split between people overhyping graphene or calling it a massive disappointment, it’s time we got to the truth of what is happening with this so-called ‘wonder material’.

Graphene Renewable Energy is more efficient in conducting electricity than copper, 200 times stronger than steel but six times lighter.

It is almost entirely transparent since it can absorb 2% of light, even those as light as hydrogen or helium are impermeable to gases. To alter its properties, chemical components can be added to its surface if that were not enough.

Discovery of Graphene

Carbon comes in many different forms as so-called allotropes, from the graphite found in pencils to the world’s most expensive diamonds. In 1980, we knew only three basic forms of carbon: diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon. And then, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were discovered, and graphene joined the club in 2004.

Before Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov first demonstrated graphene, in 2004, two physicists from the University of Manchester received the Nobel Prize in 2010. Scientists have argued that strictly 2D crystalline materials were thermodynamically unstable and that could not exist.

In 1947 Graphene had already been studied theoretically by P.R. Wallace as a textbook example for solid-state physics calculations. He predicted about the electronic structure and noted the linear dispersion relation. J.W. McClure wrote down the wave equation for excitations in 1956, and G.W. Semenoff discussed the similarity to the Dirac equation in 1984.

Geim and Novoselov, in their initial experiments, extracted graphene from a piece of graphite, such as is found in ordinary pencils. Using regular adhesive tape, they obtained a carbon flake with a thickness of only one atom. This mechanical exfoliation is the simplest preparation method and, surprisingly, makes stand-alone graphene a reality.

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Knowing the process of graphene making 

The quality of graphene plays a vital role as defects, impurities, grain boundaries, structural disorders, multiple domains, and wrinkles in the graphene sheet can adversely affect its electronic and optical properties.

In electronic applications, the essential bottleneck is the requirement of large-size samples, which is possible only in the CVD process. Still, it isn’t easy to produce high-quality, single-crystalline graphene thin films with high electrical and thermal conductivity and excellent optical transparency.

Another primary concern in the synthesis of graphene by conventional methods involves the use of toxic chemicals. These methods generally result in the generation of hazardous waste and poisonous gases. This is why there is a need to develop green strategies to produce graphene by following environmentally friendly approaches.

The preparation process for graphene should allow for in situ fabrication and integration of graphene-based devices with complex architecture, eliminating the multi-step and laborious fabrication methods at a lower production cost.

The most common techniques available for graphene production are shown schematically below, including micromechanical cleavage, chemical vapor deposition, epitaxial growth on SiC substrates, and chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of graphite, and unzipping the carbon nanotubes.

Each method can have advantages and limitations depending on its target application(s). To overcome these barriers in commercializing graphene, researchers are making concerted efforts at various Research and Development institutes, universities, and companies worldwide to develop new methods for large-scale production of low-cost and high-quality graphene via simple and eco-friendly initiatives.

Already, researchers have produced large, single-crystal-like graphene films more than a foot long on virtually any flat surface – a step towards commercialization.

However, a considerable caution here is that global graphene production appears to suffer from severe quality issues. It seems that there is almost no high-quality graphene, as defined by ISO, in the market yet.

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Description of Graphene Renewable Energy

Graphene is a form of carbon that can bring us space elevators and bulletproof armor, improve medicine, and the internet can run faster — someday. For the past 15 years, consumers have heard about this wonder material and all the ways it could change everything. Is it almost here, or is it another promise that is perpetually just one more breakthrough away?

Graphene is actually an allotrope of carbon, and it is consists of hexagonal ring-like structures, which is a combination of graphite, carbon nanotubes, charcoal, and fullerene. Graphene is highly efficient in comparison to other hydrocarbons. Graphene has the efficiency in conducting heat and energy.

The graphene stability is shallow when it has a thickness of 20nm means when it has below 6000 molecules. Still, we can make it more stable when we increase the number of much larger molecules above 24000 molecules at this fullerene. The resistivity power of the graphene is 10 −6 Ω⋅cm.

This is the only element at room temperature which has low resistivity. Graphene’s unique optical properties produce an unexpectedly high opacity for an atomic monolayer in a vacuum, absorbing πα ≈ 2.3% of red light, where α stands as the fine-structure constant. This results from the “unusual low-energy electronic structure of monolayer graphene that features electron and conical hole bands meeting each other at the Dirac point.

Graphene’s melting point was 4015k; later, it increased to 5000k, above 6000k. It is known that the sheet of graphene melts when it gets radiation above 6000k from the sun. Graphene has a space of 0.355 internally.

Uses of Graphene 

The usage of graphene in energy storage is most especially researched using graphene in advanced electrodes. Combining graphene and silicon nanoparticles resulted in anodes sustaining 92% of their energy capacity over 300 charge-discharge cycles, with a maximum capacity of 1500 mAh per gram of silicon.

Achieved energy density values are above 400 Wh/kg. A Spearhead project will focus on the pre-industrial production of a silicon-graphene-based lithium-ion battery in the next Flagship phase.

Furthermore, a spray-coating deposition tool for graphene was developed, enabling large-scale production of thin films of graphene used, for example, to produce supercapacitors with very high power densities.

Price of Graphene 

Graphene can spur advances in a variety of sectors, from transport to medicine to electronics. Unfortunately, high graphene costs have slowed commercialization.

Cost factors of Graphene 

Understanding how graphene is produced is actually crucial to understanding graphene cost. That’s because how graphene is made relates to how much it ultimately costs.

Graphene cost is directly linked to graphene quality. For example, the organization points to graphene oxide, which is inexpensive. It can also be used for advanced composite and biotechnology applications; it can’t be used for batteries, flexible touch screens, and “other advanced optoelectronic applications.”

In contrast, CVD graphene offers sufficient quality for any graphene application, is priced depends on the cost of transferring it from the substrate on which graphene is grown and production volume. That essentially means that buying high-quality graphene in large volumes is cheaper than buying a small quantity of it.

Of course, the issue is that with no commercial applications for graphene so far available, few are looking to buy the material in massive quantities. As a result, graphene is not cheap for the most part.

Electronic properties

One reason nanotechnology researchers working towards molecular electronics are very much excited about graphene is its electronic properties. It is one of the most fine electrical conductors on Earth. The distinctive atomic arrangement of the carbon atoms in graphene permits its electrons to easily travel at tremendously high velocity without the significant chance of scattering, saving precious energy typically lost in other conductors.

Scientists have found that graphene can conduct electricity even at nominally zero carrier concentration limits because the electrons don’t appear to slow down or localize.  And the electrons moving around the carbon atoms interact with the periodic potential of graphene’s honeycomb lattice, which helps raise new quasiparticles that have lost their mass or rest mass (so-called massless Dirac fermions). It means that graphene never stops conducting. It was also found that they travel faster than electrons in other semiconductors.

Mechanical properties

The impressive and intrinsic mechanical properties of graphene, its strength, stiffness, and toughness are some of the reasons graphene stands out as an individual material and a reinforcing agent in composites. They are produced by the stability of the sp2 bonds that form the hexagonal lattice and oppose a variety of in-plane deformations.

Here in the article below, a detailed discussion of the mechanical properties of graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites can be found.


The breaking force obtained experimentally from the simulation was almost identical, and the experimental value of the second-order elastic stiffness was equal to 340 ± 50 N m-1. This value corresponds to Young’s modulus of 1.0 ± 0.1 TPa, assuming an adequate thickness of 0.335 nm.


Defect-free, monolayer graphene is considered the most robust material ever tested, with a strength of 42 N m-1, which equates to an intrinsic strength of 130 GPa.


Fracture toughness, a property very relevant to engineering applications, is one of graphene’s most important mechanical properties and was measured as a critical stress intensity factor of 4.0 ±0.6 MPa.

Research groups worldwide are developing industrially manufacturable graphene sheets with high strength and toughness in all sheet directions for diverse applications as graphene-based composites for vehicles, optoelectronics, and neural implants.

A recent consumer product example that exploits graphene’s mechanical properties is the Momo Evo Graphene motorcycle helmet, developed by Italy’s Momodesign and the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT).

The first-ever graphene-infused carbon fiber helmet capitalizes on the material’s strong, thin, and conductive, flexible, and light characteristics for creating a helmet that absorbs and dissipates impact better than your average helmet. It also disperses heat more efficiently, so it’s cooler.

Another example is the Dassi Interceptor™ Graphene bike – the world’s first graphene bicycle. Enhancing carbon fiber with graphene allows making lighter, thinner tubes that are stronger than regular carbon. That means an aero-shaped frame with none of the usual weight sacrifice. This bike is 30% lighter yet twice as strong and super stiff thanks to its graphene reinforced frame.

Optical Properties

Graphene’s ability to absorb a relatively large 2.3% white light is also a unique and exciting property, especially considering it is only one atom thick. Its aforementioned electronic properties are the electrons act like massless charge carriers with a very high mobility rate. Several years ago, it was proved that the amount of white light absorbed is based on the Fine Structure Constant rather than being dictated by material specifics. Adding another graphene layer increases the amount of white light absorbed by approximately the same value (2.3%). Graphene’s opacity of πα ≈ 2.3% equates to a universal dynamic conductivity value of G=e2/4ℏ (±2-3%) over the visible frequency range.

Graphene strength

Due to the strength of 0.142 Nm-long carbon bonds, graphene is the most robust material ever discovered. Graphene is with an ultimate tensile strength of 130,000,000,000 Pascals (or 130 gigapascals), compared to 400,000,000 for A36 structural steel or 375,700,000 for Aramid (Kevlar).

Using Waste to Cost-Effectively Produce Graphene

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Global waste has been a big concern for the last several years and continues to be an increasingly pressing issue in modern-day society. In a completely different world aspect, the graphene industry has been trying to bolster many sectors, including consumer-centric sectors. Nevertheless, some applications have not been as fruitful (even though the added value is there) because graphene’s cost is too high for these industries.

Future of graphene 

One would expect to see it everywhere, as graphene’s seemingly endless list of strengths. Then why is graphene not widely adopted to use? It comes down to money, as with most things. Graphene is still immensely expensive to produce in large quantities, limiting its use in any product that would demand mass production. Moreover, when large graphene sheets are made, there is an increased risk of tiny fissures and other flaws appearing in the material. Economics will always decide success, no matter how incredible a scientific discovery may be.

Research on graphene is by no means slowing down; keep the production issues aside. Research laboratories worldwide — where graphene has first discovered at the University of Manchester— are continually filing patents for new methods of producing and using graphene. The European Union has already approved funding for a flagship program in 2013, which will fund graphene research for use in electronics. Meanwhile, major tech companies in Asia are researching graphene, including Samsung.

Revolutions don’t happen overnight. If you can recall, Silicon was discovered in the mid of 19th century, but it took nearly a century before silicon semiconductors paved the way for the rise of computers. With its almost mythical qualities, might graphene be the resource that drives the next era of human history? Only time will tell.

Few facts on Graphene Renewable Energy

Is graphene flammable?

Graphene’s tremendously high flammability has been an obstacle to further development and commercialization. However, this discovery makes it possible to mass-produce graphene and graphene membranes to improve a host of products, from fuel cells to solar cells to supercapacitors and sensors.

Can graphene produce electricity?

Researchers harnessed graphene’s atomic motion to generate an electrical current that could lead to a chip replacing batteries. Physicists have successfully developed an electrical current from the atomic movement of graphene, discovering a new source of clean, limitless power.

How does graphene store energy?

The main reason for using graphene for its high surface area, stability, and conductivity (as well as charge carrier mobility) are that it can be utilized to accumulate and store charge—which is the fundamental energy storage mechanism capacitors.

What is graphene currently used for?

Application areas. Transport, medicine, electronics, energy, defense, desalination; the range of industries impacting graphene research is substantial.

Are Graphene batteries available?

Graphene-based batteries have exciting potential, and while they are not yet fully commercially available, R&D is intensive and will hopefully yield results in the future.

Is Graphene the future?

Graphene promised a world of future applications, including super-fast electronics, ultra-sensitive sensors, and incredibly durable materials. Graphene proved more potent than steel but highly flexible, and electrons could zip through it at high speeds.

Are Graphene batteries the future?

Graphene technology has already hit the market is not the future at all. For decades, we have used lithium-ion-based batteries, but gradually we might be able to get used to the latest generation of batteries based on graphene.

Can we see graphene?

Graphene is the thinnest material on earth, so light that it is actually two-dimensional! However, despite being so thin, we can still see graphene with our naked eyes! Graphene is the world’s most conductive material. The carbon atoms in graphine delocalise electrons, which allows them to move freely in the material.

Concluding discussion

There’s no doubt this wonderful stuff will soon be used in almost every aspect of your home, work, and transport.

World, it’s time to start loving Graphene Renewable Energy.

Graphene can spur advances in a variety of sectors, from transport to medicine to electronics. Unfortunately, high graphene costs have slowed commercialization.

Everyone agrees that graphene is a fantastic material. Graphene has interestingly better electron mobility than any metal, is one atom thin, is flexible, and all that while being stronger than steel.

The Nobel Prize in physics 2010 confirmed the material’s potential, and scientific breakthroughs keep rolling out. Graphene has been shown to enhance batteries, electronic transistors, solar cells, flexible displays, sensors, and material strength. Thousands of patents are being filed each year for inventions ranging from graphene tries to flexible cellphones.

However, it is difficult to predict when and how graphene will make it to the market in huge quantities. The key arguing point is the price of graphene.

“Graphene already costs competitive for several industrial applications.”

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